Purpose: Assess peak speed of horizontal movement and explosiveness to inform an individualized training plan.


Assessment Method: Two-leg broad jump. 16 total jumps. Measured by 1080 Sprint with waist belt.


We all know it—the ability of an athlete to jump high and fast significantly correlates to success across a wide range of sports actions (and if you don’t know it or don’t believe us, see Reiser et al 2006). We all may know it, but how do we measure this key athletic ability with enough precision to know if our training is having the right impact? If training decisions and future performance are driven by an athlete’s explosiveness and peak speed of movement, then we must have tools to test, assess, and analyze this quality.

The Set-Up

Movement: Two-leg broad jump—a simple, discrete horizontal movement.

Measurement: The athlete’s peak velocity can be determined by creating a load-velocity profile using the 1080 Sprint. 

Method: Each jump is performed at maximal effort with a minimum of three different external loads utilizing the No Fly Weight resistance mode. Each loaded jump trial is performed with sufficient rest between jumps beginning with the lightest load. The computerized motor measures horizontal force and speed exerted in each jump and produces a predicted peak velocity at body weight. 

How it Works

The 1080 Sprint can measure peak horizontal velocity (and relative power) of a discrete athletic movement to help determine what physical factors require improvement to enhance rate of force development (RFD). As a testing tool, it can provide value in following a simple protocol to determine peak velocity of a horizontal bilateral or unilateral movement.

Video 1. Two-leg broad jump performed by Clemson University Strength & Conditioning Intern (and former NCAA triple-jumper) Gralyn Jones.  

Our athlete in the demo video, Gralyn Jones, weighs 83 kilograms (183 lbs) and four different jump trials are displayed below in Figure 1. Four jumps were performed at each of the four loads. To obtain a good average value from each load level, the best and worst jump (based on peak velocity) were deleted, keeping the two middle reps as the basis for measurement. 

The 1080 application will then take the average of those two measurements to be included in the Load – Velocity profile. Each specific concentric load during the four trials is determined based on a percentage of body weight. The No Fly Weight resistance mode was selected and the concentric speed limit set to maximum 14 m/s allows for no additional restriction of the movement. Eccentric load was equal to the concentric load and eccentric speed limit set to .7 m/s to prevent the system from pulling back quickly after completing the landing phase.  


Figure 1: All 8 broad jumps (two jumps per load after deleting the best and worst) are shown prior to calculation of the peak velocity noted in Table 1. 1 & 2 represent 2.1 kg load, 3 & 4 represent 4.2 kg load, 5 & 6 represent 8.3 kg load, and 7 & 8 represent 12.5 kg load.

Table 1 (below) presents the load and average velocity measured during each of the four jump trials. Notice with the increase in load, the average velocity trended in a slower direction. This inverse relationship is consistent with a predictable load-velocity curve represented in Figure 2. Peak velocity (V0) is determined to be 4.71 m/s at 0 kg load with the R2 0.972 (97%) determining high goodness of fit for the observations. 

Percentage of Body Weight [83 kg] Load [kg] Average Velocity [m/s]
2.5% 2.1 4.65
5.0% 4.2 4.48
10.0% 8.3 4.29
15.0% 12.5 4.15

Table 1: Progressive loading of body weight leading to expected decrease in max velocity at each load. This is consistent with inverse relationship expected with a load-velocity correlation. 


Load Velocity Report

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Figure 2: 1080 Sprint load velocity report displayed with four trials of resisted, two-leg broad jump. Peak velocity indicated to be 4.71 m/s with high R2 of 97%. 

When performing testing with 1080 Sprint: 

• First mark out a consistent starting location for each jump to ensure reproducibility (a distance of about 4 meters out from the Sprint system will ensure the angle of the line up to the athlete’s waist belt is not too sharp).  

• A sub-max effort jump prior to testing to feel each load may benefit the athlete to orient to loaded jumps and provide maximum effort during testing. 

• Full effort of each measured jump is required to reliably calculate peak velocity at bodyweight.


Following the testing of the individual, the report can be viewed, emailed, and printed.  

In summary, the 1080 Sprint provides the ability to measure peak velocity of horizontal movements in a systematic order. The opportunities to utilize the data to monitor training adaptation can be completed within a short testing session. 

References

Reiser R.F., Rocheford E.C., Armstrong C.J. (2006) Building a better understanding of basic mechanical principles through analysis of the vertical jump. Strength & Conditioning Journal 28(4), 70-80 [Google Scholar]